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10th International Conference on Spine and Spinal Disorders, will be organized around the theme “Advancements in Spinal Surgery Techniques and Spinal Disorders”

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Spinal cord disorders involve injuries, infections, a stopped blood supply, and compression by a fractured bone or a Tumor. Habitually, muscles are weak or paralyzed, sensation is abnormal or lost, and controlling bladder and bowel function may be difficult. Doctors does the diagnosis based on symptoms and results of a physical examination and imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging. Spinal cord disorder is rectified upon conditions if possible. Usually, rehabilitation is needed to recover as much function as possible. The spinal cord is the main pathway of transmission between the brain and the rest of the body. The cord is secured by the vertebrae of the spine. The vertebrae are separated and protected by disks made of cartilage.Spine and spinal disorders refer to a wide array of conditions affecting the intricate structure of the spine, encompassing the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, and surrounding tissues. These disorders can result from various causes, including degenerative changes, traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities, infections, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. Common spinal disorders include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, herniated discs, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal cord compression, and spinal cord injury. Symptoms of spine and spinal disorders may manifest as localized or radiating pain, stiffness, weakness, numbness, tingling sensations, and impaired mobility. In severe cases, these conditions can lead to neurological deficits such as paralysis, bowel or bladder dysfunction, and even life-threatening complications.


pinal cord disorders involve injuries, infections, a stopped blood supply, and compression by a fractured bone or a Tumor. Habitually, muscles are weak or paralyzed, sensation is abnormal or lost, and controlling bladder and bowel function may be difficult. Doctors does the diagnosis based on symptoms and results of a physical examination and imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging. Spinal cord disorder is rectified upon conditions if possible. Usually, rehabilitation is needed to recover as much function as possible. The spinal cord is the main pathway of transmission between the brain and the rest of the body. The cord is secured by the vertebrae of the spine. The vertebrae are separated and protected by disks made of cartilage.Spine and spinal disorders refer to a wide array of conditions affecting the intricate structure of the spine, encompassing the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, and surrounding tissues. These disorders can result from various causes, including degenerative changes, traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities, infections, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. Common spinal disorders include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, herniated discs, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal cord compression, and spinal cord injury. Symptoms of spine and spinal disorders may manifest as localized or radiating pain, stiffness, weakness, numbness, tingling sensations, and impaired mobility. In severe cases, these conditions can lead to neurological deficits such as paralysis, bowel or bladder dysfunction, and even life-threatening complications.
  • Track 4-1Degenerative spine conditions
  • Track 4-2Spinal osteoarthritis
  • Track 4-3Spondylolisthesis
  • Track 4-4 Degenerative scoliosis
  • Track 4-5Sciatica
  • Track 4-6Treatment options

A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord due to which loss of muscle function, sensation occurs. Is medically complex and life-threatening condition where global incidence is about 40 to 80 cases per million population and every year around the world 250000 to 500000 people suffers from Spinal Cord Injury. There are distinct types of spinal cord injuries like incomplete spinal cord injury-cord is partially severed, Complete spinal cord injury-cord is fully severed. Spinal cord injury is usually caused due to the act of violence, alcoholism, sports and recreation injuries. It includes tetraplegia, paraplegia, nerve pain, pneumonia, chronic pain. A spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs when there is damage to the spinal cord, resulting in temporary or permanent changes in its function. This injury can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild sensory disturbances to complete paralysis, depending on the location and severity of the damage. SCI often results from traumatic events such as motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, or violence. Non-traumatic causes, such as infections, tumors, or degenerative diseases, can also lead to spinal cord damage. The consequences of SCI can be profound, affecting not only physical function but also emotional well-being and social participation. Common symptoms include loss of sensation, muscle weakness or paralysis, changes in bowel and bladder function, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, and respiratory problems. Management of SCI requires a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, involving acute medical care, rehabilitation, and long-term support. Immediate medical interventions aim to stabilize the spine and prevent further damage. Rehabilitation focuses on maximizing function, independence, and quality of life through physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other supportive services. Assistive devices, mobility aids, and adaptive equipment may also be prescribed to facilitate daily activities and mobility.

While advancements in medical care and rehabilitation have improved outcomes for individuals with SCI, it remains a life-altering condition that requires ongoing support and management. Research efforts continue to explore new treatments and interventions aimed at enhancing recovery and improving long-term outcomes for those affected by spinal cord injury.

  • Track 5-1Neuroprotection
  • Track 5-2SCI imaging technique
  • Track 5-3Neuro-regeneration
  • Track 5-4SCI Rehabilitation
  • Track 5-5SCI Treatment and Surgery

A spine fracture refers to a break or crack in one or more of the vertebrae that make up the spinal column. These fractures can occur anywhere along the spine, from the cervical (neck) region to the thoracic (mid-back) and lumbar (lower back) regions. Spine fractures can result from traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, or direct blows to the back. They can also occur due to conditions like osteoporosis, which weakens the bones and makes them more susceptible to fractures. The severity of a spine fracture can vary widely, ranging from minor compression fractures to more serious fractures that cause instability or damage to the spinal cord. Symptoms may include localized pain, tenderness, difficulty moving, numbness or tingling sensations, and in severe cases, paralysis or loss of bowel and bladder control. Treatment for spine fractures depends on various factors, including the type and severity of the fracture, the presence of neurological symptoms, and the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include rest, pain management, bracing, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgical intervention to stabilize the spine or decompress the spinal cord.Early diagnosis and appropriate management of spine fractures are crucial for preventing complications and promoting optimal recovery. Rehabilitation and ongoing follow-up care may be necessary to help patients regain function and mobility and minimize long-term disability.


  • Track 6-1Vertebral fracture
  • Track 6-2Compression fracture
  • Track 6-3Thoracic fracture
  • Track 6-4Lumbar fracture
  • Track 6-5Advances in treatment

Spine infection is caused by the bacteria, virus, fungus or infections can occur after the surgery and infection occurs 1to 4 percent of surgical cases. Spine infection is usually caused by the bacteria and spread to the blood stream into vertebral discs and affect this area causing discitis, the disc space degenerates as the infection progresses. Poor immune system of patients makes susceptible to the spine infection. Diagnosis is done by imaging tools with advanced technology.20 percent of people die by spine infection despite of treatment advances every year.Spine infection, also known as spinal infection or vertebral osteomyelitis, is a serious medical condition characterized by the presence of infectious agents within the spinal column. These infections can affect various structures of the spine, including the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, and surrounding soft tissues. Spine infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or, less commonly, viruses, and they typically occur as a result of hematogenous spread from another site of infection, direct inoculation during spinal procedures or surgery, or local extension from adjacent infected tissues. Symptoms of spine infection may include localized back pain, fever, chills, swelling, redness, warmth at the site of infection, and neurological deficits such as weakness, numbness, or tingling sensations. In severe cases, spinal infections can lead to spinal cord compression, epidural abscess formation, and neurological complications, including paralysis. Diagnosis of spine infection often involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI scans, and laboratory tests to identify the causative organism. Treatment typically involves a combination of antimicrobial therapy, either antibiotics or antifungal medications, and sometimes surgical intervention to drain abscesses, debride infected tissues, and stabilize the spine. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and preserve spinal function in patients with spine infections. Long-term management may involve prolonged antibiotic therapy, rehabilitation, and monitoring for recurrence or complications.

  • Track 7-1Prenatal diagnosis of infection
  • Track 7-2Spine infection prevention
  • Track 7-3Health issues and treatment

Spine diseases encompass a spectrum of conditions affecting the vertebral column, spinal cord, and surrounding structures, leading to pain, dysfunction, and disability. These diseases can affect individuals of all ages and may result from various causes, including degenerative changes, trauma, infections, tumors, congenital abnormalities, and inflammatory conditions. Common spine diseases include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, herniated discs, spinal fractures, scoliosis, kyphosis, spinal cord compression, and spinal cord injury. Degenerative disc disease, characterized by the breakdown of spinal discs over time, often leads to chronic back pain and reduced mobility. Spinal stenosis involves the narrowing of the spinal canal, causing pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and resulting in symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs. Traumatic spine injuries, such as fractures or dislocations, can cause immediate and severe symptoms, including paralysis, depending on the location and severity of the injury. Congenital spine abnormalities, such as spina bifida or congenital scoliosis, develop before birth and may lead to spinal cord dysfunction or curvature of the spine.


Spinal implants market has been classified as swiftly developing market and it is expected that the market will reach preeminent pinnacle in the coming future. Surgeons during the surgery use devices like Spinal implants for treating deformities, stabilizing and providing strength to the spine and to promote the fusion process. Disorders like degenerative disc disease, scoliosis, kyphosis, fracture, and spondyloses can be treated by using Spinal implants. The bone density decreases as the age increases leads to the back-bone defects and the chronic back complications in the old age people. This raises the possibility to damage the spinal cord. Recently there have been amazing alteration in the implantable devices; the use of the implants in the spinal and orthopaedic surgeries has elevated. The advancements in the spinal implantable devices has found wider acceptance across the globe and large population is willing to spend on the spinal surgeries involving the use of implants. The demand for the surgical procedures has strengthen due to the benefits grant by it, such as less blood loss, reduced recovery time, reduced risk of medical complication, infections, pain and muscle damage. The high acceptance rate of the minimally interfering spinal surgeries has boosted the market for spinal implants.

  • Track 9-1Industry insights
  • Track 9-2Products insights
  • Track 9-3Competitive market insights

Spine surgery is done not all the time; but when condition worsens and turns fatal. Spine surgery helps in restoring the spinal disorders like deformities, trauma, scoliosis, degenerative discs, spina stenosis. Global market for the spinal surgery equipment’s is estimated to be USD 13 billion in 2017 and expected to reach USD 16.6 billion by 2021.North America contributes larger share of market in surgical devices followed by Europe. Distinct surgical procedures are used to treat the spine disorders like Endoscopic surgery, Discectomy, laser surgery, Kyphoplasty, electrothermal therapy and spinal fusion. The market of spine surgery device in Europe is estimated to meet about $2993.6 million by 2019 therefore CAGR is about 7.3%, will be more in 2019.

Spinal therapy is done in the case of patients sustained with spine injury. Spine therapy includes the physical therapy, decompression therapy, Minimally invasive therapy. Partial restorative therapies are available for the spinal cord injury, rehabilitative, cellular and molecular are been tested. Combination of therapies are used to treat the spine injury to get the positive results.

Spine Surgery:

Spinal surgery involves various procedures designed to alleviate pain, stabilize the spine, decompress nerves, and restore function. Common types of spine surgery include:

Discectomy: Removal of a herniated or damaged spinal disc that is compressing nerves.

Spinal Fusion: Joining two or more vertebrae together to stabilize the spine and reduce pain.

Laminectomy: Removal of the lamina (back part of the vertebra) to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.

Vertebroplasty/Kyphoplasty: Procedures to stabilize fractured vertebrae and relieve pain associated with vertebral compression fractures.

Artificial Disc Replacement: Surgical replacement of a damaged spinal disc with an artificial implant.

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Utilizes small incisions and specialized instruments to perform surgery with less tissue damage and quicker recovery times.

Spine Therapy:

Spine therapy focuses on conservative treatments and rehabilitation techniques to manage spinal conditions and promote healing. It may include:

Physical Therapy: Exercises and manual techniques to improve spinal strength, flexibility, and range of motion.

Occupational Therapy: Helps individuals regain independence in daily activities through adaptive techniques and equipment.

Pain Management: Medications, injections (e.g., epidural steroid injections), and nerve blocks to alleviate pain and inflammation.

Chiropractic Care: Manipulative techniques to realign the spine and alleviate pain.


  • Track 10-1Stem cell spine therapy
  • Track 10-2Spine Fusion
  • Track 10-3Minimally invasive spine surgery
  • Track 10-4Arthroplasty
  • Track 10-5Multidisciplinary spinal tumour surgery
  • Track 10-6Precaution during surgery
  • Track 10-7Complex Spinal tumour surgery
  • Track 10-8Advanced researches in spine therapy
  • Track 10-9Manual therapy
  • Track 10-10Physical therapy
  • Track 10-11Ozone therapy
  • Track 10-12Spinal Decompression therapy

Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the bone channel occupied by the spinal nerves. It is usually caused in the older people. Distinct types of stenosis are lumbar stenosis, cervical stenosis. About 30.4 percent of Japanese people are affected by stenosis. Causes involves arthritis, trauma, tumours, instability of spine. MRI, CT scan, Red flag are the diagnosis methods of spinal stenosis.Spinal stenosis is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing of the spinal canal, leading to compression of the spinal cord and nerves. This narrowing can occur in various regions of the spine, including the cervical (neck), thoracic (mid-back), and lumbar (lower back) spine. Spinal stenosis can result from a variety of factors, including age-related degenerative changes, such as osteoarthritis, herniated discs, thickened ligaments, or bone spurs, as well as congenital abnormalities or spinal injuries. The narrowing of the spinal canal in spinal stenosis can lead to a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected areas. Symptoms may worsen with activities that involve standing or walking for extended periods, as these activities can further compress the spinal cord and nerves. In severe cases, spinal stenosis can cause bowel or bladder dysfunction and difficulty with balance and coordination. Treatment for spinal stenosis aims to alleviate symptoms, improve function, and prevent further progression of the condition. Conservative treatment options may include rest, activity modification, physical therapy, and pain management techniques such as medication or epidural steroid injections. Assistive devices such as braces or canes may also be recommended to help support the spine and improve mobility.


  • Track 11-1Stenosis symptoms
  • Track 11-2Stenosis surgery
  • Track 11-3Cervical stenosis
  • Track 11-4 Lumbar stenosis
  • Track 11-5Stenosis diagnosis and treatment

Orthopedicians works on Osteopathic Medicine and it is a medical specialty that target on the body's musculoskeletal system, that comprise of bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Orthopaedist who develops oneself in the analysis and prescription of spinal diseases and conditions. Ortho spine surgeons provide non-operative and surgical treatment to patients of all ages, even supposing some focus on treating children (Pediatric) or adults.  Some of the spinal complications such as scoliosis, degenerative disorders, or a region of the spine (cervical/neck, lumbar/low back) can be evaluated by few of the Orthopedics surgeons. Neuro spine, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty bothered with the avoidance, interpretation, surgical treatment, and reclamation of disorders which influence any fragment of the nervous system along with the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.The spine serves as the central support structure of the body, providing stability, mobility, and protection for the delicate spinal cord and nerve roots. Ortho & Neuro-spine specialists are trained to address a wide range of spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, spinal deformities (such as scoliosis and kyphosis), spinal tumors, spinal trauma, and spinal cord injuries.Ortho & Neuro-spine surgeons undergo extensive training in both orthopedic and neurosurgical techniques, enabling them to approach spinal disorders from multiple perspectives. They employ advanced diagnostic imaging modalities, such as MRI, CT scans, and X-rays, to accurately assess the underlying pathology and develop individualized treatment plans tailored to each patient's unique needs.Non-surgical interventions play a crucial role in Ortho & Neuro-spine care, with specialists employing conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication management, spinal injections, and lifestyle modifications to manage symptoms and improve spinal health. However, when conservative measures fail to provide adequate relief or when there is evidence of progressive neurological deficits, surgical intervention may be recommended.



  • Track 12-1Brain & Nerves
  • Track 12-2Sports injuries
  • Track 12-3Hand injuries and deformities
  • Track 12-4Total joint replacement
  • Track 12-5Bone tumours

Spinal fusion is the major spine surgery in the Spine injury. Pelvic bone is used to bridge between the vertebrae next to each other, It is mainly done when there is narrowing of the spinal canal or cord or nerves and used to treat fracture, spinal stenosis. Risks involves graft rejection, nerve injury, blood clots, pulmonary embolism, infections.60 to 70 percent of patient’s pain is improved after spinal fusion and 80 percent of patients are satisfied by the spine fusion surgery.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure commonly performed to treat various spinal conditions characterized by instability, deformity, or chronic pain. The procedure aims to fuse two or more vertebrae together, creating a solid bone mass that stabilizes the spine and reduces pain. During spinal fusion surgery, the surgeon accesses the spine through an incision in the back (posterior approach) or abdomen (anterior approach), depending on the specific condition being treated. Once the surgical site is reached, the surgeon removes damaged or degenerated intervertebral discs and any other tissue causing instability or compression of the spinal cord or nerves. Bone graft material is then placed between the affected vertebrae to promote bone growth and fusion. In some cases, additional hardware such as metal rods, screws, or plates may be used to provide further stability and facilitate fusion. The bone graft material used in spinal fusion surgery can be sourced from the patient's own bone (autograft) or from a donor (allograft). Autograft bone is typically harvested from the patient's pelvis during the same surgical procedure, while allograft bone is processed and sterilized donor bone obtained from a tissue bank.Spinal fusion is indicated for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, spinal deformities (such as scoliosis or kyphosis), spinal fractures, and certain types of spinal tumors. The goals of spinal fusion surgery include stabilizing the spine, reducing pain, improving spinal alignment, and restoring or preserving neurological function.

  • Track 13-1Multilevel fusion
  • Track 13-2Fusion complication
  • Track 13-3Fusion complication
  • Track 13-4Fusion bone graft
  • Track 13-5Lumbar fusion
  • Track 13-6Cervical fusion
  • Track 13-7Fusion associated Infection

Lumbar spine composed of 5 vertebral bones and the lower back of the spine is called as lumbar spine. The lower vertebral column is protected by the coccyx and the sacrum. The analysis of potential fatal conditions and for the many therapeutic purposes lumbar puncture is done to procure the cerebrospinal fluid, medical procedure for the diagnosis. About 32% of patients carries severe morbidity and experiences the headache prior to the lumbar puncture. Ultrasound lumbar puncture is most helpful to obsess patients with spinal disorders. Lumbar puncture market is expanding day by day, the market players are Beckton-Dickinson Company, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Affymetrix Inc, Ortho-clinical Diagnostics, Inc., Gen-probe, Inc., Beckman coulter Inc., Diamedix corporation, Novartis Diagnostics, Hologic, Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Inc.The lumbar spine, also known as the lower back, is a critical region of the vertebral column located between the thoracic spine (mid-back) and the sacrum (part of the pelvis). Comprising the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the spine, labeled L1 through L5, the lumbar spine plays a crucial role in supporting the upper body, facilitating movement, and protecting the spinal cord. Anatomically, the lumbar vertebrae are characterized by their robust structure, with thick vertebral bodies and broad spinous processes. These features provide stability and support for the weight-bearing function of the spine. Additionally, the intervertebral discs located between each lumbar vertebra act as shock absorbers, cushioning the spine and allowing for flexibility and movement. The lumbar spine is involved in a wide range of movements, including bending forward (flexion), bending backward (extension), bending to the side (lateral flexion), and twisting (rotation). These movements are facilitated by a complex interplay of muscles, ligaments, tendons, and spinal structures. Given its significant weight-bearing role and the range of movements it facilitates, the lumbar spine is susceptible to various injuries and conditions. Common lumbar spine disorders include


  • Track 14-1Degenerative disc disease
  • Track 14-2Facet arthropathy
  • Track 14-3Lumbar fractures
  • Track 14-4Herniated disc (ruptured or slipped disc)
  • Track 14-5Sciatica
  • Track 14-6Spinal stenosis
  • Track 14-7Spondylolisthesis

Spinal deformity is any abnormality in the alignment or the shape of the vertebral column i.e. a curvy spine. Normal spine has gentle curvature, when the curvature is exaggerated they are considered as deformities. The common signs of spinal deformities are uneven shoulders, uneven hips, a protruding shoulder blade, misalignment of the head over the midline of the body and fatigue. These conditions arise for the reasons, including inborn deformities, age related degeneration, sickness processes, alternative conditions, or idiopathic causes. It can be diagnosed by the Adam’s forward bend test.Spinal deformity refers to abnormal curvature or misalignment of the spine, which can occur in various forms and have different causes. The spine normally has gentle curves when viewed from the side (lordosis in the cervical and lumbar regions, kyphosis in the thoracic region) and should appear straight when viewed from the front or back. However, spinal deformities can disrupt these natural curves, resulting in conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Scoliosis is characterized by a sideways curvature of the spine, which may resemble an "S" or "C" shape when viewed on X-rays. It can develop during childhood or adolescence (adolescent idiopathic scoliosis) or be present at birth (congenital scoliosis). Other types include neuromuscular scoliosis, which occurs due to conditions such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy, and degenerative scoliosis, which develops in adults due to wear and tear on the spine.

Kyphosis refers to an exaggerated forward rounding of the upper back, leading to a hunched posture. It can result from poor posture, degenerative changes in the spine, compression fractures due to osteoporosis, or congenital abnormalities. Lordosis, on the other hand, is an exaggerated inward curvature of the lower back, causing the buttocks to protrude. It can occur due to obesity, pregnancy, poor posture, or conditions such as spondylolisthesis.

  • Track 15-1Scoliosis
  • Track 15-2Rickets
  • Track 15-3Lordosis
  • Track 15-4Achondroplasia
  • Track 15-5Brittle bone disease
  • Track 15-6Muscular dystrophy

Nonsurgical treatment: Spine injection, recommended for treatment of chronic back pain. Injection of medicinal agents relieves the pain where the nerve signals are blocked between targeted areas of the body and the brain. The treatment approach involves injections of local anaesthetics, steroids, or narcotics into the affected soft tissues, joints, or nerve roots. It includes complex nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation. Can be used in two different ways as diagnostics and therapeutics. Delivers the steroids directly to the dura space in the spine. This is successful in relieving the lower back pain about 50% of patients.

There are several types of spinal injections, each targeting different structures within the spine and serving distinct therapeutic purposes:

  1. Epidural Steroid Injections (ESIs): ESIs are administered into the epidural space, the area surrounding the protective covering of the spinal cord and nerve roots. These injections typically contain corticosteroids, which help reduce inflammation and relieve pressure on spinal nerves. ESIs are commonly used to manage conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and radiculopathy (nerve root compression).
  2. Facet Joint Injections: Facet joints are small joints located between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. Facet joint injections involve delivering medication, such as a local anesthetic or corticosteroid, directly into the facet joint space. These injections can help alleviate pain and inflammation associated with facet joint arthritis, facet joint syndrome, or spinal osteoarthritis.
  3. Sacroiliac Joint Injections: The sacroiliac joints are located in the pelvis, connecting the sacrum to the ilium of the pelvis. Injections into the sacroiliac joint space can help reduce pain and inflammation caused by conditions such as sacroiliitis or sacroiliac joint dysfunction.
  4. Trigger Point Injections: Trigger points are localized areas of muscle spasm or tension that can contribute to spinal pain and dysfunction. Trigger point injections involve injecting a local anesthetic or corticosteroid directly into these tender points to relieve muscle pain and improve mobility.


  • Track 16-1Caudal epidurals (popular with orthopods)
  • Track 16-2Interlaminar epidurals
  • Track 16-3Lumbar nerve root blocks (transforaminal)
  • Track 16-4Sacroiliac injections

Spinal manipulation is also known as spinal manipulative therapy or manual therapy, it is an intervention execute on spinal articulations that are synovial joints, and that is claiming to be remedial. It creates relieve pressure on joints, reduce inflammation, and improve nerve function. It is generally used to treat back, neck, shoulder, and headache pain. Chiropractors use it to treat much other disease, such as menstrual pain and sinus problems. The z-joints, atlanto axial, atlanto-occipital, lumbosacral, sacroiliac costotransverse and costovertebral joints include Spinal manipulative therapy and are susceptible to the Articulations. In North America, chiropractors and osteopathic physicians, and physical and occupational therapists usually perform spinal manipulation.

Spinal manipulation, also known as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or chiropractic adjustment, is a hands-on therapeutic technique commonly used by chiropractors, osteopathic physicians, physical therapists, and other healthcare professionals to treat various musculoskeletal conditions, particularly those affecting the spine. The primary goal of spinal manipulation is to restore proper alignment, mobility, and function to the spinal joints. This is achieved through controlled and targeted force applied to specific areas of the spine, often accompanied by a quick, thrusting movement. The manipulation may produce an audible popping or cracking sound, which is believed to result from the release of gas bubbles within the joint fluid.

Spinal manipulation is commonly used to treat conditions such as:

  • Low back pain
  • Neck pain
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Sciatica
  • Whiplash injuries
  • Certain types of joint pain or stiffness


  • Track 17-1Physical Therapy & Rehabilitation

Osteoporosis is nothing, but the spine fractures it will make your bones weak, thinning of the bone sometimes they may crack or break, even the bones of your spine. Spine fractures, also known as vertebral compression fractures, comprising of severe back pain that makes it hard to stand, walk, sit, or lift objects. Keeping your bones as strong as possible can prevent the osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is of two types Type I osteoporosis: Postmenopausal osteoporosis this is far more common in women than in men, and typically develops between the ages of 50 and 70. This process leads to an increase in the resorption of bone (the bones loses substance).  Consistently results in a reduction in the amount of trabecular bone (the spongy bone inside of the hard-cortical bone). If the bone strength decreases overall it may lead primarily to wrist and vertebral body (in the spine) fractures. Type II osteoporosis: Senile osteoporosis often happens after the age of 70. Also involves a thinning of both the trabecular bone (the spongy bone inside of the hard-cortical bone) and the hard-cortical bone. It may regularly lead to hip and vertebral body fractures.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone density and deterioration of bone tissue, making bones fragile and prone to fractures. While osteoporosis can affect any bone in the body, it frequently manifests in the vertebrae, leading to compression fractures. These fractures can occur spontaneously or as a result of minimal trauma, such as bending or lifting. Vertebral compression fractures can cause severe back pain, height loss, kyphosis (forward curvature of the spine), and diminished lung capacity. Moreover, repeated compression fractures can result in progressive spinal deformity and disability. Risk factors for osteoporosis include advanced age, female gender, hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, sedentary lifestyle, and certain medications.


  • Track 18-1Osteoporosis Treatment
  • Track 18-2Lumbar Arthritis
  • Track 18-3Facet Joint Arthropathy
  • Track 18-4Rheumatoid Arthritis Spine
  • Track 18-5Lumbar Arthropathy

Spinal cord injury (SCI) has been investigated a hopeless condition and it often causes disastrous sequelae resulting from trauma (e.g. a car crash) or from disease. Reducing secondary damage is the key to its treatment. Distinct investigations and clinical trials have been implemented and some of them showed auspicious results; however, there is still no gold standard treatment with sufficient evidence. There is no predictable estimation of global popularity, but predicted annual global incidence is 40 to 80 cases per million populations. Up to 90% of these cases are due to traumatic causes. Around 250 000 and 500 000 people suffer with spinal cord injury (SCI) every year. People with SCI more likely to die prematurely than the people without a SCI, with worse survival rates in low-income and middle-income countries. The immediate side effect for the dominant part of spinal issue is persecution. Spine is very mind-boggling structure with various capacities. Ordinary maturing process prompts changes in vertebrae, tendons and intervertebral circles.Case reports, on the other hand, offer detailed descriptions of individual patient cases, highlighting unique presentations, diagnostic challenges, treatment approaches, and outcomes. While they lack the statistical power of clinical trials, case reports provide valuable insights into rare or unusual manifestations of spinal disorders, unexpected treatment responses, adverse events, and lessons learned in clinical practice. They offer clinicians an opportunity to learn from real-world experiences and expand their knowledge base, potentially influencing future research directions and clinical decision-making.


  • Track 19-1Spine surgery case reports
  • Track 19-2Spinal disorders case reports
  • Track 19-3Neurosurgery case reports
  • Track 19-4Preclinical research based on the mechanistic approach
  • Track 19-5Neuroanatomical and neurochemical pathways
  • Track 19-6Substrate modulation by drugs
  • Track 19-7Role of drug approach in neurochemical data analysing
  • Track 19-8Biochemical studies
  • Track 19-9Neurophysiological approaches
  • Track 19-10Case studies

Spinal cord injury (CSI) patient immobilized and every precaution should be taken while transporting as the risk of secondary injury is high. Spinal cord injury (CSI) patient will have health problems consequently the main ambition in administering them is to prevent further injuries to the spinal cord, maintain physiological stability and initiating care of the skin, establishing good bladder and bowel care. The main goal of rehabilitation is to prevent obstacle and reintegration into the community. It is a multidisciplinary approach. Nursing management of patient with spinal cord injury can be summarized in: Provide airway and ventilator support in patients with high tetraplegia early, prevent acute respiratory failure, prevent and treat hypotension, Recognize and treat neurogenic shock, prevent pressure ulcer using biofilm, Prevent further injuries to the spinal cord.

Assessment: Nurses conduct comprehensive assessments of patients with SCI, including neurological status, sensory and motor function, bowel and bladder function, skin integrity, respiratory status, and psychosocial well-being. Regular monitoring helps identify changes or complications promptly. Prevention of complications: Nurses implement measures to prevent complications associated with SCI, such as pressure ulcers, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, deep vein thrombosis, and autonomic dysreflexia. Positioning, skin care, turning schedules, respiratory hygiene, and catheter care are essential components of preventive care. Respiratory management: Nurses assess respiratory function and provide respiratory support as needed, including airway clearance techniques, incentive spirometry, mechanical ventilation, and respiratory exercises. They monitor for signs of respiratory distress and intervene promptly to prevent complications such as pneumonia or atelectasis.

  • Track 20-1Prehospital care
  • Track 20-2Critical care in NICU
  • Track 20-3Nursing rehabilitation

The pediatric spine refers to the anatomical structure of the spine in children, encompassing the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, and surrounding tissues. It is a critical component of the musculoskeletal system, providing support, stability, and protection for the spinal cord while allowing for mobility and flexibility. The pediatric spine undergoes significant growth and development from infancy through adolescence. During this period, the spine undergoes rapid changes in size, shape, and alignment to accommodate the child's growth and development. These developmental changes are essential for the proper functioning of the spine and overall musculoskeletal system. Pediatric spine conditions can arise from various factors, including congenital abnormalities, developmental disorders, traumatic injuries, infections, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. Common pediatric spine conditions include congenital scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, spinal deformities, spinal cord compression, and spinal cord injury. Diagnosis and management of pediatric spine conditions require a comprehensive approach, considering the child's age, growth stage, and overall health. Imaging studies such as X-rays, MRI, and CT scans are often used to evaluate the spine's structure and identify any abnormalities. Additionally, physical examination, medical history review, and neurological assessment are essential components of the diagnostic process.


  • Track 21-1Paediatric Spine Injury
  • Track 21-2Pediatric cervical spine
  • Track 21-3Scoliosis in an Infant

Inflammatory spine diseases encompass a group of conditions characterized by inflammation of the structures of the spine, including the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, facet joints, and surrounding soft tissues. These conditions often lead to chronic pain, stiffness, and impaired mobility, significantly impacting patients' quality of life. Some of the most common inflammatory spine diseases include ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the sacroiliac joints and the spine, leading to progressive fusion of the vertebrae and reduced spinal mobility. It typically manifests with lower back pain and stiffness, which worsens with rest and improves with physical activity. AS may also involve other joints, eyes, and organs, and it is strongly associated with the HLA-B27 genetic marker. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects individuals with psoriasis, a chronic skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches. PsA can involve the spine, leading to inflammation of the sacroiliac joints and the spine itself, causing pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. PsA can also affect other joints, skin, nails, and even the eyes. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints, causing inflammation, pain, and joint damage. While RA typically affects peripheral joints such as the hands and feet, it can also involve the cervical spine, leading to instability, subluxation, and compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots. This can result in symptoms such as neck pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the arms and hands.


  • Track 22-1Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Track 22-2Psoriatic arthritis
  • Track 22-3Enteropathic arthritis
  • Track 22-4Reactive arthritis